TreeBUGS: Hierarchical Multinomial Processing Tree Modeling

User-friendly analysis of hierarchical multinomial processing tree (MPT) models that are often used in cognitive psychology. Implements the latent-trait MPT approach (Klauer, 2010) <doi:10.1007/s11336-009-9141-0> and the beta-MPT approach (Smith & Batchelder, 2010) <doi:10.1016/> to model heterogeneity of participants. MPT models are conveniently specified by an .eqn-file as used by other MPT software and data are provided by a .csv-file or directly in R. Models are either fitted by calling JAGS or by an MPT-tailored Gibbs sampler in C++ (only for nonhierarchical and beta MPT models). Provides tests of heterogeneity and MPT-tailored summaries and plotting functions. A detailed documentation is available in Heck, Arnold, & Arnold (2018) <doi:10.3758/s13428-017-0869-7> and a tutorial on MPT modeling can be found in Schmidt, Erdfelder, & Heck (2022) <doi:10.31234/>.

Version: 1.5.0
Depends: R (≥ 4.0.0)
Imports: Rcpp (≥ 0.12.6), runjags, stats, graphics, utils, grDevices, coda, parallel, rjags, MASS, hypergeo, logspline
LinkingTo: Rcpp, RcppArmadillo
Suggests: knitr, rmarkdown, testthat, R.rsp
Published: 2023-05-21
DOI: 10.32614/CRAN.package.TreeBUGS
Author: Daniel W. Heck ORCID iD [aut, cre], Nina R. Arnold [aut, dtc], Denis Arnold [aut], Alexander Ly [ctb], Marius Barth ORCID iD [ctb]
Maintainer: Daniel W. Heck <daniel.heck at>
License: GPL-3
NeedsCompilation: yes
SystemRequirements: JAGS (
Citation: TreeBUGS citation info
Materials: NEWS
In views: Psychometrics
CRAN checks: TreeBUGS results


Reference manual: TreeBUGS.pdf
Vignettes: TreeBUGS: Introduction to Hierarchical MPT Modeling
TreeBUGS: Advanced MPT Modeling
Heck, Arnold, & Arnold (2018): TreeBUGS paper (Behavior Research Methods)


Package source: TreeBUGS_1.5.0.tar.gz
Windows binaries: r-devel:, r-release:, r-oldrel:
macOS binaries: r-release (arm64): TreeBUGS_1.5.0.tgz, r-oldrel (arm64): TreeBUGS_1.5.0.tgz, r-release (x86_64): TreeBUGS_1.5.0.tgz, r-oldrel (x86_64): TreeBUGS_1.5.0.tgz
Old sources: TreeBUGS archive

Reverse dependencies:

Reverse imports: MPTmultiverse


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