---
title: "Introduction to the ContourFunctions R package"
author: "Collin Erickson"
date: "`r Sys.Date()`"
output: rmarkdown::html_vignette
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{Introduction to the ContourFunctions R package}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
%\VignetteEncoding{UTF-8}
---
```{r setup, include=FALSE}
knitr::opts_chunk$set(fig.width=6, fig.height=6)
```
The ContourFunctions R package provides functions that make it easier to make contour plots. The function `cf` is a quick function that can take in grid data, a function, or any data, and give a contour plot showing the function or data.
By default, plots are made using base graphics,
but they can also be done using ggplot2.
## `cf_grid`
`cf_grid` creates a contour plot from a grid of points.
Below `a` and `b` create a grid of points at which `r` is calculated. `cf_grid` is used to create the contour plot.
Note that the only indication of the relationship between the colors and the `r` values is in the title of plot, which says that the darkest blue point is the minimum of -0.613, and the darkest pink point is the maximum of 1. (Note that this is not a good representation of the surface because there aren't enough points in the grid, the contours are actually concentric circles as shown below.)
```{r cf_grid}
library(ContourFunctions)
a <- b <- seq(-4*pi, 4*pi, len = 27)
r <- sqrt(outer(a^2, b^2, "+"))
cf_grid(a, b, cos(r^2)*exp(-r/(2*pi)))
```
To add a bar that shows how the colors relate to the output, simply set `bar=TRUE`, as shown below.
```{r cf_grid bar}
cf_grid(a, b, cos(r^2)*exp(-r/(2*pi)), bar=TRUE)
```
Other parameters specifying details of the plot can be passed as well, see
the documentation for those options.
## `cf_func`
For the above we had to create the grid of points and give it in to `cf_grid`. To make this easier, `cf_func` allows you to simply pass in a function. It will then evaluate the function at a grid of points and pass these to `cf_grid` to make the contour plot.
```{r}
f1 <- function(r) cos(r[1]^2 + r[2]^2)*exp(-sqrt(r[1]^2 + r[2]^2)/(2*pi))
cf_func(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi))
```
If you give a function that can more efficient evaluate a bunch of points at a time, instead of one at a time, use the `batchmax` to have it pass points as a matrix to the given function.
The argument `n` controls how many points along each dimension are used. We see below that if we go back to `n=27`, then we get the same plot as above.
```{r}
cf_func(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), n=27)
```
## `cf_data`
Often one has data and wants to get an idea of what the surface looks like that fits the data. The `cf_data` allows the user to pass in the data to get such a plot. A Gaussian process model is fit to the data, by default using the R package laGP to do so. The model is then used to make predictions at the grid of points to make the contour plot. The model prediction function is passed to `cf_func` to create the contour plot.
Note that this relies heavily on the model being somewhat accurate, and may not truly represent the data if the model is a poor fit.
Below a random sample of 20 points are taken from a function (a Gaussian peak centered at (0.5, 0.5)), and `cf_data` is used to plot the data. The black dots show the data points used to create the model.
```{r cf_data}
set.seed(0)
x <- runif(20)
y <- runif(20)
z <- exp(-(x-.5)^2-5*(y-.5)^2)# + rnorm(20,0,.05)
# cf_data(x,y,z)
cf_data(x,y,z, bar=T)
```
## `afterplotfunc`
The contour plots are created using the `split.screen` function.
This causes the plot to not add additional items, such as points or lines, after making the plot. The plot below shows how when trying to add a point to the plot using `points`, a point that should be placed at the center ends up in the bottom right corner.
```{r}
cf_func(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi))
points(c(0,0), pch=19)
```
If you just want to add points, you can use the parameter `pts` to do so. Below we see that the point ends up correctly in the center of the plot.
```{r}
cf_func(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), pts=c(0,0))
```
Another option, that gives you more capability, is to use the parameter `afterplotfunc` to pass in a function that takes no arguments. After the plot is made this function will be called. You can put anything inside this function that you would normally do to a plot, including `points`, `text`, `legend`, and `abline`.
```{r}
cf_func(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi),
afterplotfunc=function() {
points(5, 5, pch=19)
text(-5,5,"Text here")
legend('bottomright', legend=c(1,2,3), fill=c(1,2,3))
abline(a=0, b=1, col=2)
}
)
```
## `cf`
To make using the above `cf_func` and `cf_data` slightly easier, the same inputs can be passed to the function `cf`. It detects whether the first parameter is a function, in which case it passes everything to `cf_func` or numeric, in which case it passes everything to `cf_data`.
The following two plots demonstrate how `cf` is used. Really the only benefit is that is saves you typing `_func` or `_grid`.
```{r cf for func}
cf(f1, xlim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi), ylim = c(-4*pi, 4*pi))
```
```{r cf for data}
cf(x,y,z, bar=T)
```
## `cf_highdim`
For higher dimensional functions, `cf_highdim` makes a contour plot
of two-dimensional slices of the given function.
The dimensions not being shown can be set to a default value
or averaged out.
```{r}
friedman <- function(x) {
10*sin(pi*x[1]*x[2]) + 20*(x[3]-.5)^2 + 10*x[4] + 5*x[5]
}
cf_highdim(friedman, 5, color.palette=topo.colors)
```
## `cf_4dim`
Functions with four input dimensions can be displayed
using a grid of contour plots with the function `cf_4dim`.
Two of the dimensions are shown on each plot,
while the other two are set to a specific value
for the given plot.
```{r}
cf_4dim(function(x) {x[1] + x[2]^2 + sin(2*pi*x[3])})
```
## Making plots with ggplot2
All of the above plots used R base graphics.
Similar functions for `cf`, `cf_func`, `cf_data`, and `cf_grid`
that use ggplot2 are also available as
`gcf`, `gcf_func`, `gcf_data`, and `gcf_grid`
```{r}
f2 <- function(x) {exp(x[1]) * sin(2*pi*x[2])}
gcf(f2)
```
## Adding contour lines to plots
By default, the contour plots are made using filled colors.
To add lines on top of the color fill, use `with_lines=TRUE`.
To make a contour plot with only lines, use `lines_only=TRUE`.
```{r}
cf(f2, with_lines=TRUE)
```
```{r}
gcf(f2, lines_only=TRUE, bar=T)
```